tin

Tin is a soft, white, silvery metal that is insoluble in water. Tin metal is used to make cans for food, beverages, and aerosols. It is present in brass, bronze, pewter, and some soldering materials.

Tin is a metal which can combine with other chemicals to form compounds. When tin is combined with chemicals such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, it is called an inorganic tin compound.

Inorganic tin compounds are found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. They are present in toothpaste, perfumes, soaps, coloring agents, and dyes.

Tin can also combine with carbon-containing materials to form organotin compounds. These compounds are used in making plastics, food packages, plastic pipes, pesticides, paints, wood preservatives, and rodent (rats and mice) repellents.

There can be tin metal, as well as inorganic and organic tin compounds in the air, water, and soil near places where they are naturally present in the rocks, mined, manufactured, or used. The time each tin compound stays in air, water, or soil differs from compound to compound. This silvery, malleable poor metal that is not easily oxidized in air and resists corrosion, is found in many alloys and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as an oxide.

Tin is a soft, white, silvery metal that is insoluble in water. Tin metal is used to make cans for food, beverages, and aerosols. It is present in brass, bronze, pewter, and some soldering materials.

Tin is a metal which can combine with other chemicals to form compounds. When tin is combined with chemicals such as chlorine, sulfur, or oxygen, it is called an inorganic tin compound.

Inorganic tin compounds are found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. They are present in toothpaste, perfumes, soaps, coloring agents, and dyes.

Tin can also combine with carbon-containing materials to form organotin compounds. These compounds are used in making plastics, food packages, plastic pipes, pesticides, paints, wood preservatives, and rodent (rats and mice) repellents.

There can be tin metal, as well as inorganic and organic tin compounds in the air, water, and soil near places where they are naturally present in the rocks, mined, manufactured, or used. The time each tin compound stays in air, water, or soil differs from compound to compound.
Applications

Tin bonds readily to iron, and has been used for coating lead or zinc and steel to prevent corrosion. Tin-plated steel containers are widely used for food preservation, and this forms a large part of the market for metallic tin. Speakers of British English call them “tins”; Americans call them “cans”. One thus-derived use of the slang term “tinnie” or “tinny” means “can of beer”. The tin whistle is so called because it was first mass-produced in tin-plated steel.

History

Tin (Anglo-Saxon, tin, Latin stannum) is one of the earliest metals known and was used as a component of bronze from antiquity. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3,500 BC. Tin mining is believed to have started in Cornwall and Devon ( esp Dartmoor) in Classical times, and a thriving tin trade developed with the civilizations of the Mediterranean[citation needed]. However the pure metal was not used until about 600 BC. The last Cornish Tin Mine, at South Crofty near Camborne closed in 1998 bringing 4000 years of mining in Cornwall to an end.
The word “tin” has cognates in many Germanic and Celtic languages. The American Heritage Dictionary speculates that the word was borrowed from a pre-Indo-European language.

In modern times, the word “tin” is often (improperly) used as a generic phrase for any silvery metal that comes in thin sheets. Most everyday objects that are commonly called tin, such as aluminium foil, beverage cans, and tin cans, are actually made of steel oraluminium, although tin cans do contain a small coating of tin to inhibit rust. Likewise, so-called “tin toys” are usually made of steel, and may or may not have a small coating of tin to inhibit rust.
USES OF TIN

Some important tin alloys are: bronze, bell metal, Babbitt metal, die casting alloy, pewter, phosphor bronze solder, and White metal.

The most important salt formed is stannous chloride, which has found use as a reducing agent and as a mordant in the calico printing process. Electrically conductive coatings are produced when tin salts are sprayed onto glass. These coatings have been used in panel lighting and in the production of frost-free windshields.

Window glass is most often made via floating molten glass on top of molten tin (creating float glass) in order to make a flat surface (this is called the “Pilkington process”).

Tin is one of the two basic elements used since the Renaissance in the manufacture of organ pipes (the other being lead). The amount of tin in the pipe defines the pipe’s tone, tin being the most tonally resonant of all metals.

Tin is also used in solders for joining pipes or electric circuits, in bearing alloys, in glass-making, and in a wide range of tin chemical applications. Although of higher melting point than a lead-tin alloy, the use of pure tin or tin alloyed with other metals in these applications is rapidly supplanting the use of the previously common lead–containing alloys in order to eliminate the problems of toxicity caused by lead.

Tin foil was once a common wrapping material for foods and drugs; replaced in 1910 by the use of aluminium foil, which is now commonly referred to as tin foil. Hence one use of the slang term “tinnie” or “tinny” for a small retail package of a drug such as cannabis or for a can of beer.